Regarding Physical and Chemical Transformations with the Involvement of Water Near –45 °C

  • Georgy S. Bordonsky Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, POB 1032, 16-a Nedorezova str., 672002 Chita, Russian Federation
  • Alexander A. Gurulev Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, POB 1032, 16-a Nedorezova str., 672002 Chita, Russian Federation
Keywords: supercooled water,, second critical point,, Widom line,, acceleration of chemical reactions


Objective. A hypothesis about a new mechanism for accelerating chemical reactions involving
supercooled water near -45 °С is presented. The hypothesis is based on the properties of the
second critical point of water at a temperature of –53 °C and a pressure of 100 Mpa determined
by computer modelling. Its infl uence extends to a special region of the phase space of cold
water – the Widom line, which corresponds to -45 °С at atmospheric pressure. On the Widom
line, an increase in entropy fl uctuations and water density are predicted. It is assumed that an
increase in the fl uctuation of entropy leads to an increase in the fl uctuation of the energy of
water molecules and an acceleration of the chemical transformations. However, deep overcooling
of bulk water is impossible due to its rapid crystallization below -37 °C.
Methods. Deep cooling is possible if water is in nanoscale pores. The most convenient medium
for this purpose is nanoporous silicate sorbents, in which a signifi cant volume of pore water has
parameters close to bulk metastable water. In an experiment using nanoporous moistened silicate
sorbents, it is possible to achieve supercooling of water to -60 °С.
In the performed experiment, thermometry of samples of silicate sorbents fi lled with hydrogen
gas was performed. A chemical reaction was checked for near the Widom line. We also investigated
the change in the physical properties of the medium using microwave spectroscopy.
Results. In the experiment, it was possible to observe reactions of the interaction of hydrogen
with the pore surface by the release of heat, as well as amplifi cation of microwave radiation at
a frequency of 34 GHz.
Conclusion. Chemical reactions involving water, according to the proposed mechanism, can
accelerate on the Widom line at temperatures from -45 °C to -53 °C and in the pressure range
from 0 to 100 MPa






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Author Biographies

Georgy S. Bordonsky, Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, POB 1032, 16-a Nedorezova str., 672002 Chita, Russian Federation

Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, Head Laboratory of Geophysics of Cryogenesis,
Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy
of Sciences, Chita, Russian Federation; e-mail: 

Alexander A. Gurulev, Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, POB 1032, 16-a Nedorezova str., 672002 Chita, Russian Federation

Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Researcher, Associate Professor, Institute
of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Chita, Russian Federation; e-mail: sansang@ 

How to Cite
Bordonsky, G. S., & Gurulev, A. A. (2019). Regarding Physical and Chemical Transformations with the Involvement of Water Near –45 °C. Condensed Matter and Interphases, 21(4), 478-489.