Zirconium dioxide. Review

Keywords: Fianite, Baddeleyite, Zircon, Ceramics, Solid solutions, Oxides of rare earth elements, Phase diagrams, Inert matrix nuclear fuel


A review of zirconium dioxide or zirconia ZrO2 is presented. The finding of zirconium compounds in nature, the physical and chemical properties of ZrO2 are given, the polymorphism of zirconium oxide, and the phase diagrams of systems with its participation are considered. The areas of application of zirconia compounds are highlighted: automotive industry, electronics industry, energy and industrial ecology, equipment manufacturing and mechanical engineering the production of zirconium-based refractories, ceramics, enamels, glass, superhard materials, applications in medicine, nuclear energetics, and many others areas of human activity. Cubic modification of zirconium dioxide, stabilized by oxides of rare earth elements,
is a jewelry stone (fianite). Partially stabilized zirconium dioxide is a versatile structural material with very high resistance to crack propagation. Solid solutions of REE oxides, especially scandium, have a high oxygen conductivity, which is used in sensors for measuring the partial pressure of oxygen and in fuel cells. Attention is paid to heat-resistant oxide ceramic materials with low thermal conductivity used in the quality of heat-resistant coatings. Considerable attention was paid to the second most important mineral of zirconia - baddeleyite (ZrO2). Baddeleyite is widely used in the production of refractory materials. It is mined for the production of metallic zirconium. The achievements of Soviet and Russian scientists in the
development of technologies for the production of fianite and artificial baddeleyite are presented.


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Author Biographies

Pavel P. Fedorov, Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova str., GSP-1, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation

DSc in Chemistry, Professor, Chief
Researcher of Prokhorov General Physics Institute of
the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian
Federation; e-mail: ppfedorov@yandex.ru

Evgeniya G. Yarotskaya, Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova str., GSP-1, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation

PhD in Chemistry,
Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian
Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation;
e-mail: yar461@yandex.ru


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How to Cite
Fedorov, P. P., & Yarotskaya, E. G. (2021). Zirconium dioxide. Review. Condensed Matter and Interphases, 23(2), 169-187. https://doi.org/10.17308/kcmf.2021.23/3427