On the limitations of the applicability of Young’s equations temperature
The article uses the thermodynamics of interfacial phenomena to justify the fact that Young’s equations can correctly describe the three-phase equilibrium with any type of interatomic bonds. Wetting, adhesion, dissolution, surface adsorption, and other surface phenomena are important characteristics, which
largely determine the quality and durability of materials, and the development of a number of production techniques, including welding, soldering, baking of metallic and non-metallic powders, etc. Therefore, it is important to study them.
Using experimental data regarding surface energies of liquids (melts) and contact angles available in the literature, we calculated the surface energies of many solid metals, oxides, carbides, and other inorganic and organic materials without taking into account the amount of the interfacial energy at the solid-liquid (melt) interface. Some researchers assumed that in case of an acute contact angle the interfacial energy is low. Therefore, they neglected it and assumed it to be zero.
Others knew that this value could not be measured, that is why they measured and calculated the difference between the surface energy of a solid and the interfacial energy of a solid and a liquid (melt), which is equal to the product of the surface energy of this liquid by the cosine of the contact angle. It is obvious that these methods of determining the surface energy based on such oversimplified assumptions result in poor accuracy.
Through the use of examples this paper shows how the surface energies of solids were previously calculated and how the shortcomings of previous calculations can be corrected
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