Entropy features of the PeTa effect during phase transformations of water
The article discusses a hypothesis put forward by V. A. Tatarchenko and M. E. Perelman. According to it, the first order phase transition during vapour condensation or melt crystallisation (PeTa effect) is accompanied by the appearance of nonthermal radiation of the media. The generally accepted point of view is that the latent heat of phase transformation can only be released in the form of heat. When the authors of the hypothesis tried to prove the existence of the effect of nonthermal radiation and considered the facts confirming it, they did not take into account the peculiarities of the initial and final states of the medium (i.e. their entropy). To clarify the physics of the process of liquid crystallisation and to consider the possibility of nonthermal radiation, we studied the peculiarities of water crystallisation and the formation of ice. This is
the process the authors referred to in order to prove their hypothesis. It was shown that in various experiments, it is necessary to consider both the state (structure) of the initial water samples and the formed ice, which can consist of various crystalline modifications with chaotic packing. These features of initial and final states, i.e. the entropy of water and ice samples in real experiments and under observed natural phenomena, make it more difficult to assess the characteristics of a possible radiation. The entropy of the initial and final states was determined by the procedure of the system preparation and the peculiarities of the phase transition dynamics. Its values depend on macroscopic parameters, as well a s on the
microstructure of the media, the determination of which is a very challenging task in each specific case. In addition, in many cases, we have to deal with metastable media, for which it is necessary to take into account the influence of fluctuations on the process of the phase transition. Therefore, the concepts of equilibrium thermodynamics are not applicable to them. However, these are the media where non-heat radiations may occur in accordance with the laws of self-organisation in nonlinear weakly nonequilibrium objects. This work shows a method for preparing low-entropy medium with its subsequent phase transformation into ice. To do so we conducted an experiment which involved freezing concentrated alcohol in order to obtain deeply supercooled water. It appears that to find the characteristics of the PeTa radiation it is necessary to take
into account the entropy constraints for each specific case, which will allow assessing the spectrum of possible non-heated radiations and their characteristics.
Perelman M. E., Tatartchenko V. A. Phase transition of the first kind as radiation processes. Physics Letters A. 2008;372(12): 2480–2483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2007.11.056
Tatartchenko V. A., Smirnov P. V., Wu Y. First order phase transitions as radiation processes. Optics and Photonics Journal. 2013;3: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2013.38A001
Tatartchenko V. A. Sonoluminescence as the PeTa radiation. Optics and Photonics Journal. 2017;7: 27–55. https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2017.72004
Bordonsky G. S., Gurulev A. A., Orlov A. O., Tsyrenzhapov S. V Amplification of microwave radiation in ice upon pressure-induced phase transition. Technical Physics Letters. 2012;38(10): 884–886. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1063785012100045
Bychkov I.V., Golunov V.A., Kalenov D.S., Kamancev A.P., Kuchin D.S., Koledov V.V., Kuzmin D.A., Meriakri V.V., fon Gratovski S.V., Parhomenko M.P., Mashirov A.V., SHavrov V.G. Sobstvennoe izluchenie i koefficient otrazheniya EMV v diapazone 8 mm splavov Ni2.14Mn0.81GaFe0.05 i TiNi v temperaturnom intervale vblizi fazovfh perekhodov 1-go i 2-go roda [The intrinsic radiation and electromagnetic wave reflection coefficient in the range of 8 mm of Ni2,14Mn0,81GaFe0,05 and Ti-Ni alloys in the temperature interval near the phase transitions of the 1st and 2nd order]. Zhurnal radioelektroniki = Journal of Radio Electronics. 2014;(12): 1–20. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=23206423 (In Russ.)
Tatartchenko V. A. Bubble glow at hydrothermal vents as the PeTa radiation. Optics and Photonics Journal. 2019;9(11): 189–217. https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2019.911017
Petrushkin S. V., Samarcev V. V. Lazernoe ohlazhdenie tverdyh tel [Laser cooling of solids]. Moscow: Fizmatlit. Publ.; 2004. 224 p. (In Russ.)
Salzmann C. G. Advances in the experimental exploration of water’s phase diagram. The Journal of Chemical Physics. 2019;150(6): 060901. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5085163
Leoni P., Russo J. Non-classical nucleation pathway in stacking-disordered crystals. Physical Review X. 2021;11(3). https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevx.11.031006
Rosenfeld D., Woodley W. L. Deep convective clouds with sustained supercooled liquid water down to –37.5 °C. Nature. 2000;405(6785): 440–442. https://doi.org/10.1038/35013030
Gallo P., Amann-Vinkel K., Angell C. A., Anisimov M. A., Caupin F., Chakravarty C., Lascaris E., Loerting T., Panagiotopoulos A. Z., Russo J., Sellberg J. A., Stanley H. E., Tanaka H., Vega C., Xu L., Petterson L. G. M. Water: a tail of two liquids. Chemical Review. 2016;116(13): 7463–7500. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00750
Bordonskiy G. S., Gurulev A. A. Regarding physical and chemical transformations with the involvement of water near –45 °C. Kondensirovannye sredy i mezhfaznye granitsy = Condensed Matter and Interphases. 2019;21(4): 478–489. https://doi.org/10.17308/kcmf.2019.21/2359
Limmer D. T, Chandler D., Phase diagram of supercooled water confined to hydrophilic nanopores. Journal of Chemical Physics. 2012;137(4): 044509/11.https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4737907
Shibkov A. A. Intrinsic electromagnetic radiation of growing ice. Vestnik Tambovskogo Universiteta = Tambov University Reports. Series Natural and Technical Sciences. 2009;14(6): 1192–1195. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=13067701(In Russ., abstract in Eng.)
Prigozhin I. Introduction to thermodynamics of irreversible processes. New York: Interscience Publishers; 1961. 119 p.
Copyright (c) 2021 Kondensirovannye sredy i mezhfaznye granitsy = Condensed Matter and Interphases
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.