Surface-active and chemical properties of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid – nitric acid – water composites
Industrially produced anionic surfactant alkylbenzenesulfonic acid is proposed as a reagent for the ionic flotation of metals from acidic media. To establish the possibility of its application using this method, it is necessary to study the surface-active (surface tension, adsorption, cross-sectional area of a molecule in the adsorption layer) and colloidal (particle size, critical micelle concentration, solubilisation) properties of its aqueous and nitric acid solutions.
In this study, a series of solutions with various concentrations of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and containing arious amounts of nitric acid (from 1 to 10 wt%) were prepared. The surface tension of the obtained solutions as determined by the hanging drop method using a DSA 25E tensiometer. The introduction of HNO3 led to a decrease in the surface tension of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid solutions and in its CMC value in comparison with aqueous solutions. On surface tension isotherms with a nitric acid content of 5 and 10 wt%, the presence of several inflections was found, which indicates a stepwise micelle formation. The values of surface activity and Gibbs energies of micelle formation of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid in aqueous and nitric acid solutions were calculated. Adsorption isotherms were constructed from the results of processing the curves of the surface tension of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid solutions. With small amounts of HNO3 (1 and 2%), the limiting adsorption value of the anionic surfactant significantly increased as compared to the aqueous solution. A further increase in the acidity of the medium led to a decrease in the maximum on the adsorption isotherm. In the presence of an inorganic acid, the monomolecular layer of the surfactant first significantly loosened and then gradually became denser with an increase in acidity. The values of the limiting adsorptions, the adsorption equilibrium constants and the Gibbs energies of adsorption at the liquid-gas interface were calculated using the obtained isotherms. The solubilising ability of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid in relation to the Sudan I dye was determined photometrically using a UNIСO 1201 spectrophotometer. With an increase
in the solution acidity and the surfactants content the amount of solubilised dye increased.
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