Substances and the transformations they undergo: basic concepts
We formulated the specific features for the notions of substances and transformation of substances. A substance is a set of interacting particles characterised by the following parameters 1) composition, or the type and ratio of amounts of particles that form the substances, 2) the energy of their interactions, 3) their structure and, finally, 4) the size of particles (dispersion). Transformations of substances occur when these properties change. Such processes are called chemical reactions. To control the transformation of a substance from the thermodynamic point of view, we need to evaluate: 1. The possibility of spontaneous processes (without energy consumption). 2. The thermal effect of the chemical reaction. 3. The equilibrium
composition of the reaction medium.
We solved these problems using a mathematical model based on the improved notions (substance, energy, work, supersaturation) and the known laws of thermodynamics.
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